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Components and Accessories & Working of Components

Central Vacuum Cleaners: Chapter 1


Components and Accessories


By the end of this module, you should be able to describe: The types of central vacuum cleaners, and The components of central vacuum cleaners. Skip to quiz!


Components


Recall the types of central vacuum cleaners. They are:

  • Cyclonic central vacuum cleaners, and

  • Filtered central vacuum cleaners.


A cyclonic central vacuum system contains a separator, drive motor, and dirt collector. A filtered central vacuum system contains a filter, drive motor, and dirt collector. We will now learn about the central vacuum system's components.


Let’s begin with learning the components. The main components of the central vacuum cleaner are:


  • Central Vacuum Unit,

  • Pipings,

  • Fittings, and

  • Inlet valves


The central vacuum unit is the heart of the central vacuum cleaner system. A motor is responsible for creating suction pressure, A filter or separator separates the air and dirt, and A dirt container is where the dirt accumulates.


The air and dirt enters the vacuum unit from one of the inlets. This air passes through the tubing and filter, and the dirt collects inside a container. The air is removed through an optional muffler.


The parts of the cyclonic vacuum unit are:


  • Drive Motor,

  • Dirt container, and

  • Cyclone separator.

The parts of the filtered vacuum cleaner are:


  • Drive Motor,

  • Dirt container, and

  • Filter

We’ll learn about each of these very soon.


The drive motor creates the suction pressure by which the dust particles get sucked into the system. Types of drive motors are:

  • Flow-through motor,

  • Peripheral bypass motor,

  • Tangential bypass motor, and

  • Multi-motor system.

Let’s learn about each type of motor.


Flow-through motors are the most affordable motor type for central vacuum systems. This motor is appropriate because it cools itself by suctioning the dirty air alongside its heated elements. This type of motor is quieter than other motors.


Peripheral bypass motors cool themselves via clean air pushed over the motor by a fan. This motor pulls air through the motor device, leading to repairs. They cost more than flow-through motors but less than bypass motors.


Tangential bypass motors are the most expensive and common type of central vacuum motor. It is the most expensive and common type of central vacuum motor known for its durability and power. A separate fan cools these motors.


Some systems have multiple motors for obtaining extra power in massive homes. Dual-motor systems are the most common for systems with more than one motor. Usually, it is more cost-effective over the long run to buy more powerful single motors than multiple cheaper, less powerful motors.


Dirt Containers collect the dirt vacuumed from the surroundings. They are of two types, they are:


  • Canisters, and

  • Bags.

Let’s learn about each of them.


Canisters pair with cyclonic and standard filtered dirt removal systems. The canisters are designed to be easily removed and dumped out. Cleaning the canister can require more effort than a bagged system and can potentially make an enormous mess.


The user can throw out the disposable bags as soon as they are filled up. This feature adds convenience and neatness to this central vacuum system. Alternatively, you can empty full bags several times before they are dirty enough to affect the system's efficiency.


Cyclone dust collectors can gather dust before particles reach the filter, making the cleaner a more efficient vacuum system. Vacuum separators efficiently carry dust particles into the collection chamber. The high separation efficiency ensures excellent separation before particulates meet the filter bag.


When the user shuts off the power unit, the weighted self-cleaning filter element drops, displaces the accumulated dust, and deposits it into the dirt canister.


Piping transfers the dirt from the rooms to the vacuum unit. The piping is installed inside the walls and connects the inlet valves with the vacuum unit. The fittings are used to connect various pieces of pipe at a variety of angles to make connections around corners and other obstructions.


Types of Inlet valves are:


  • Standard

  • Electrical

  • Standard with outlet

Let’s learn each type of inlet valve.


Standard inlet valves have only an inlet valve and no additional piping or wiring. Standard outlets are the most affordable option. You may see an image of a standard valve on the right.


The electrical inlet valve has metallic attachment points that meet up with points on the hose. Electricity can power an electrical power brush or any other electrical attachment that fits on your vacuum hose. Electrical inlet valves are the most popular for modern central vacuum systems.


Standard inlets with nearby electrical outlets are an alternative to electrical inlet valves. These are compatible with some central vacuums with a pigtailed power cord on the end of the hose. They allow you to hook up to the hose inlet and the electrical outlet separately. This enables you to use the additional electric attachments like powered brushes.


Accessories


The accessories of the central vacuum cleaner are:


  • Powerheads,

  • Hose,

  • Extension wands, and

  • Hose covers.

We’ll learn each of the accessories one by one.


While vacuuming over any hard surface, a powerhead is used to clean the surface. Powerheads feature a revolving brush that agitates carpet and rugs, freeing debris that the user can remove. While vacuuming over any hard surface, a powerhead cleans the surface.


The types of powerheads are:


  • Electric brushes,

  • Air-powered brushes, and

  • Battery-powered brushes.

Let’s first learn all the types of powerheads.


Electric motors activate electric brushes and require electric hoses. These brushes have more airflow, provide deeper cleaning, and operate quietly. They can also pick up more oversized items.


Air pressure activates air-powered brushes and is compatible with most hoses. They don't need electricity, are less expensive but make loud operation noise.


Battery-powered brushes are activated by an external battery and are compatible with most hoses. These don’t need electricity, operate quietly, and are suitable for systems lacking high voltage.


Hoses connect the inlet valve and the extension wands. The types of hoses are:


  • Standard,

  • Low voltage,

  • Pigtail,

  • Direct connect,

  • Stretch, and

  • Extension hoses ranging from 6 to 50 feet.


The extension wand connects the hose and the attachments. Types of extension wands are:


  • Telescopic wand,

  • Plastic wand, and

  • Mini wand.

Hose covers protect the hose, furniture, and floors from scratches, dents, and scuff marks. Also, it makes it easier to handle the hose. We’ll learn about the attachments in the next module.


There are three components of a Central Vacuum Cleaner:

  • Central Vacuum Unit,

  • Pipings, and

  • Inlet Valves.

Also, there are many accessories and attachments.

 

Working of components


By the end of this module, you should be able to describe: The accessories of central vacuum cleaners, Working of components, and Operation of Central Vacuum Cleaners. Skip to quiz!


Attachments


The attachments of the central vacuum cleaners are:

  • Floor brushes,

  • Rug tools,

  • Dust brushes,

  • Upholstery tools,

  • Crevice tools, and

  • Tool caddies.


Floor brushes are designed to clean smooth floors, including hardwood, tile, laminate, and even concrete. Many of these tools have natural bristles that are safe for delicate surfaces. There are a variety of types, widths, and colors available.


Rug tools differ from powerheads because they do not have a revolving brush. They are helpful when a powerhead is not desired or practical. These applications include commercial-style carpets, delicate rugs, and shag carpets.


Dust brushes help to clean smooth surfaces such as:

  • Table Tops,

  • Baseboards,

  • Wall Corners, and

  • Car Interiors.


Upholstery tools help clean furniture, vehicle upholstery, carpeted steps, draperies, and curtains. They have a stationary or removable brush that agitates the surface and frees up debris to collect it into the canister.


A crevice tool is a long and skinny attachment. It helps the user to vacuum in small and tight spaces.


Tool caddies are necessary to store the hose, wand, and tools in a suitable location. After cleaning, the wand wall clamp holds the wand off the ground. A hose hanger holds the hose on the wall.


A mesh tool caddy holds all the accessories in one place. The user may conveniently carry the tools from inlet to inlet whenever required.


Working of components


Central vacuum systems remove dirt and debris from living space and move it to the central vacuum unit in your garage or basement. Inlets are placed to access the system through a one-step process of inserting the hose in the inlet.


A central vacuum system consists of:

  • Vacuum Motor,

  • Canister Housing,

  • Filter in filtered systems,

  • Exhaust unit,

  • Connecting hoses, and

  • Inlets Valves.

Let's learn about each of the components one by one.


The system’s power depends on the motor’s size, varying from 10 to 100 HP. It depends on system size, location of the power unit, and area to be cleaned. Industrial central vacuum systems can suck up large quantities of material per hour and filter particles up to 0.3 microns.


Two crucial factors that determine the performance of a central vacuum system are:

  • Airflow, and

  • Pressure.


The airflow measurement tells how much air is moving through the system and is measured in cubic feet per minute (CFM). The system's pressure is a measurement of the system's draw or force, which is indicated in pounds per square inch (psi).


The central power unit is located out of the way in a utility closet, storage area, or janitorial room. The central vacuum unit is installed on the lowest floor of the building. The unit will require more power if placed at a higher level.


The number of inlets is based on the square feet of the building. Usually, they are placed at every 600 square feet. Buildings with several stories and large amounts of office space may require more inlets depending on the square footage.


The number of inlets has little to do with the size of the power unit. Instead, the number of people using the system simultaneously decides how the system should be constructed. The size of the cleaning system and the operators’ use determines how many central vacuum units are required.


One operator can clean approximately 3000 square feet of clear floor space in one hour. The tubing connected to the inlet valve is installed at 90° to prevent objects from entering the system.


The wand or handle has a two-way switch to turn the system on and off. They come in several styles, from ones that look like the handle on a gas pump to ones that look like the handle on a portable vacuum.


The hose has a metallic ring around the wall end. When it is inserted into the inlet, suction automatically starts. The inlet supplies electricity to the hose and has a diameter of 1 1/2 inches or more, depending on the system. They can be 25 to 30-foot long or more.


The central vacuum system piping is specifically designed to avoid clogging. It has thinner walls to match the thickness of the fittings to avoid gaps. All inlet valve plates are designed to fit the piping.


The main principle while installing the piping system is to keep it short. Main pipes or tubes can be routed in several different ways. The tubing installation begins at the farthest inlet and works backward to check if the routing is correct.


The various fittings available for joining pipes are:


  • 45° Elbow,

  • 90° Sweep Tee,

  • 90° Sweep Elbow,

  • Coupling Connector, and

  • 45° Sweep Tee.


Standard low voltage valves are the most commonly used valves. The suction starts when a hose engages the two metal contacts inside the inlet valve. A vacuum hose with a two-way rocker switch can also control the suction.


You can insert a low voltage hose inside the standard inlet valve. The wand or an attachment can be connected to the other end of the hose.


You can insert a low voltage hose inside the standard inlet valve. The wand or an attachment can be connected to the other end of the hose. It allows an electrified hose and carpet beater brush for quiet, deep cleaning.


It has two connection points/pins inside the valve. You can use a hose with a cut ring in these valves. When you insert the hose, the pins connect with the rings, passing the current. You may push the button on the powerhead to start the suction.


As the name suggests, these valves are standard inlet valves. But here, the inlet port is installed near the power outlet. So, it is used when a high voltage/pigtail hose is in use. You may connect the hose to the valve and the power cable to the power outlet.


Automatic dustpans can be installed in the kick space under a kitchen, bathroom, or workroom countertop. It enables a person to use a broom to sweep debris directly into a vacuum inlet. They are also known as Vacpan or KickSweep.


A DrawerVac inlet pulls out like a drawer from the underside of a table or counter. You can use it to dispose of the debris from a shop or kitchen work surface.


Hide-A-Hose is a space-saving retractable system that stores up to 50 feet of the hose in the tubing within the wall. In this system, you don’t have to carry the hose and connect it to the inlet valve while cleaning. Instead, you can remove the hose from the system and push it back after use.



Operations


The central vacuum cleaner consists of three main components. The PVC pipings run through the walls and into the basement or garage, wherever the central vacuum unit is located. The central vacuum unit is responsible for bringing the suction into the house.


The suction travels through the PVC piping through the walls and to one of the inlet valves. There are many inlet valves located in the house, and suction starts when:

  • The lid is opened if a standard inlet is used.

  • The lid is opened, and the hose is inserted into the valve if an


When you attach the hose to the inlet valve, the suction begins. You may clean the dirt with any of the suitable attachments. The dirt flows through the suction pipings to the central vacuum unit.



We learned about the working of various components. Also, we learned about the Hide-a-hose system and the operations of the central vacuum cleaners.


 

Question #1: Which of these are the types of central vacuum systems? (Select all that apply)

  1. Cyclonic

  2. Filtered

  3. Unfiltered

  4. Pressurized

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Answer: Cyclonic

Filtered

Types of central vacuum systems are:

  • Cyclonic System

  • Filtered System


Question #2: Which of these are the components of a central vacuum system? (Select all that apply)

  1. Evaporator

  2. Condenser

  3. Inlet Valves

  4. Central Vacuum Unit

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Answer: Inlet Valves

Central Vacuum Unit

The components of the central vacuum system are:

  • Central vacuum unit,

  • Pipings,

  • Fittings, and

  • Inlet valves.


Question #3: Which of these motors is most affordable in central vacuum systems?

  1. Flow-through motor

  2. Peripheral bypass motor

  3. Tangential bypass motor

  4. Multi-motor system

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Answer: Flow-through motor

Flow-through motors are the most affordable type of central vacuum system.


Question #4: Which motor is the quietest motor of all?

  1. Flow-through motor

  2. Peripheral bypass motor

  3. Tangential bypass motor

  4. Multi-motor system

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Answer: Flow-through motor

Flow-through motors are the quietest of all the central vacuum systems.


Question #5: Identify the components of the central vacuum cleaner.

  1. Inlet Valves

  2. Compressor

  3. Evaporator

  4. Lint Filter

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Answer: Inlet Valves

Inlet valves are a components of central vacuum cleaners.


Question #6: How do the electric brushes work?

  1. By air suction

  2. By electricity

  3. By battery

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Answer: By electricity

Electric brushes work by an electric motor and require an electric hose. It requires electricity.


Question #7: How do the air-powered brushes work?

  1. By air suction

  2. By electricity

  3. By battery

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Answer: By air suction

Air-powered brushes work by air suction


Question #8: Why do we use a hose cover?

  1. It transfers the dirt

  2. It cleans the hose

  3. It protects the hose

  4. It protects the central vacuum unit

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Answer: It protects the hose

The hose cover protects the hose.


Question #9: Which of these are the attachments used in the central vacuum cleaner? (Select all that apply)

  1. Powerhead

  2. Crevice tool

  3. Floor brushes

  4. Hose

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Answer: Crevice tool

Floor brushes

The attachments of the central vacuum cleaners are:

  • Floor brushes

  • Rug tools

  • Dust brushes

  • Upholstery tools

  • Crevice tools

  • Tool caddies


Question #10: Why are upholstery tools used? (Select all that apply)

  1. To clean vehicle upholstery

  2. To clean carpeted steps

  3. To store tools

  4. To clean debris from corners

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Answer: To clean vehicle upholstery

To clean carpeted steps

The upholstery tools are used to clean the vehicle upholstery and carpet steps.


Question #11: Which of these are crucial factors to determine the performance of a central vacuum system? (Select all that apply)

  1. Humidity

  2. Airflow

  3. Heat

  4. Pressure

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Answer: Airflo

Pressure

Airflow and Pressure are the two crucial factors to determine the performance of a central vacuum system.


Question #12: Where shall we install the central vacuum unit?

  1. Living room

  2. Bathroom

  3. Utility closet

  4. Hallway

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Answer: Utility closet

The central power unit is installed in a utility closet.


Question #13: Why is the tubing connected to the inlet valve installed at 90°?

  1. To store the tools

  2. To prevent objects from entering the system

  3. To prevent liquid from entering the system

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Answer: To prevent objects from entering the system

The tubing connected to the inlet valve is installed at 90° to prevent objects from entering the system.


Question #14: Which of these are the fittings used in the central vacuum system? (Select all that apply)

  1. 45° Elbow

  2. 360° Elbow

  3. Coupling Connector

  4. 90° Sweep Tee

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Answer: 45° Elbow

Coupling Connector

90° Sweep Tee

The various fittings available for joining pipes are:

  • 45° Elbow

  • 90° Sweep Tee

  • 90° Sweep Elbow

  • Coupling Connector

  • 45° Sweep Tee


Question #15: What is the purpose of vacuum tubings? (Select all that apply)

  1. To transfer the suction

  2. To clean the dust

  3. To transfer the dust

  4. To store tools

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Answer: To transfer the suction

To transfer the dust

The vacuum tubings are used to transfer the suction and dust.


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