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Residential Fixtures


Plumbing Fixtures: Chapter 1


Introduction to Plumbing


In this module, we will learn about plumbing fixtures. Skip to quiz!


Introduction to Plumbing Fixtures


We must have seen plumbing and sanitary fittings and fixtures installed in the kitchen, bathroom, toilets of home, school, or other buildings. A plumbing fixture is a piece of equipment that is connected to a plumbing system to deliver and drain water.


The plumbing system helps to circulate water inside the building using pipes and fittings. Plumbing fixtures are parts attached to the pipe system that carry the water through a building.


The most common plumbing fixtures are

  • Bathtubs,

  • Washbasin,

  • Showers, and

  • Toilets.

A fixture can be fixed into walls or on the floor. A fitting is an item that can be hooked, screwed, or nailed.


Plumbing fixtures are the end part of the plumbing system. We can’t imagine using water directly from the pipes without any plumbing fixtures available. Fixtures help in utilizing water for daily use such as tap and bathtubs.


We need a proper system that circulates water smoothly and in the required quantity. Water is precious and fixtures can avoid wastage of water. Fixtures also give us the required water pressure.

The plumbing fixtures are used in both residential and commercial areas. Types of plumbing fixtures used in residential buildings are;


  • Washbasins

  • Faucets,

  • Kitchen sinks,

  • Bathtub,

  • Water closets, and

  • Showers.

A plumbing fixture is a device which is connected to a plumbing system to deliver and drain water. Plumbing fixtures help in utilizing water for daily use. The plumbing fixtures used for residential purposes are washbasin, shower, bathtub, and water closet.


 

Residential Fixtures - Part 1


In this module, we will learn about residential fixtures and their components. Skip to quiz!


List of Fixtures

The general residential fixtures used daily are:

  • Washbasins,

  • Bathtubs,

  • Water closets, and

  • Showers.

Let us see each fixture in detail.


A washbasin is a part of the plumbing fixtures mounted on the wall or pedestal.

It is used for washing faces and cleaning hands. A washbasin is also known as a sink.


Washbasins are designed in different sizes and shapes to match the interior of bathrooms. There is a series of plumbing connections below this basin that we need to know. These series of connections provide the controlled flow of water and without leaks.


The front part which we can see a dish type is basin. The center drain and the tap has its own separate connecting parts. Let’s see the parts of the washbasin in detail.


Washbasin


A washbasin is a part of the plumbing fixtures mounted on the wall or pedestal. It is used for washing faces and cleaning hands. A washbasin is also known as a sink.


Washbasins are designed in different sizes and shapes to match the interior of bathrooms. There is a series of plumbing connections below this basin that we need to know. These series of connections provide the controlled flow of water and without leaks.


The front part which we can see a dish type is basin. The center drain and the tap has its own separate connecting parts. Let’s see the parts of the washbasin in detail.


The list of the parts used in the washbasin are:

  • Faucet,

  • Controls,

  • Basin,

  • Drain,

  • P-Trap,

  • Tailpiece,

  • Water supply lines,

  • Cleanout,

  • Shut-off valve

A faucet is a device that controls the flow of water from a pipe. The faucet is also popularly known as a tap. There can be one or more faucets provided for hot and cold water. A faucet includes a spout, spindle, gaskets, flanges, aerators, washers, and screws.


Controls are used to regulate the flow of water. They are installed within the faucet and are known as spindle. Spindles are of many types depending upon tap opening, such as quarter turn, half turn, and full turn.


Basin is the central part of the sink that holds water coming from the faucet. Basins have a drain in the bottom that allows waste water to escape. The fixture connections are provided on top and bottom of basin.


The drain is a device that allows water from the faucet to flow out of the basin. The drain is connected to P-trap, and the plumbing connections are hidden within the walls.


P-trap is a pipe under the sink that allows wastewater to pass through. P-trap prevents the bad odour coming from the drain lines back into the washroom. P-trap is connected to the tailpiece for drain.


Tailpiece: The section of piping assembly that connects to the drain. It flows the water away from the sink. Water supply lines are connected to the faucet controls. These lines bring hot and cold water through separate supply lines to the sink.


Cleanout is a pipe fitting that allows to clear clogs and remove debris. Cleanout is placed near or below the sink. Cleanout consist of threads and it is rotated in counter clockwise to open. Then, it is cleaned with water and refitted to its original position.


Shut-off valve is placed near a sink to control the flow of water. While maintenance, it is often provided with a handle or lever to operate and disconnect from the building supply line. Shut-off valve are similar to faucet controls and consist of similar type of finish.


Bathtub


The bathtub is a part of the plumbing fixtures that stores water for bathing purposes. Bathtubs are made of ceramic or porcelain. Bathtubs vary in size and type depending upon the space available. Different types of bathtubs are used for residential purposes. Bathtubs are designed in different shapes like oval, rectangular, and squares. A bathtub is a group of components consisting of many parts like the oval type structure which holds the water is called as tub.


Some of the parts of a bathtub are:


  • Tub,

  • Planar Cross,

  • Rim,

  • Drain,

  • Shut-off Valves,

  • Diverter Pipe,

  • Flexible Connector,

  • Overflow Pipe,

  • Trap,

  • Waste Outlet,

  • Retaining Nut, and

  • Faucets.


Let us see the working of the parts and its details.


A tub is a vessel used for holding water while bathing. While the shower is more for upright bathing, the bathtub is designed for bathing from a seated position. Bathtubs are rectangular or oval in design, and have a central drain located at the base of the tub, which can be plugged for regulating water flow.


All bathtubs have a drain located at the base of the tub and can be unplugged for regulating water in them. Drain allows water to leave the bathtub, specifically through the drain pipe.


A planar cross is a four cross-connection of pipes that controls the water flow. In the bathtub, the planar cross-connects to:

  • Diverter pipe,

  • Coldwater supply

  • Hot water supply, and

  • Rim.

A diverter pipe is plumbing equipment used to divert water flow to a single area. A Diverter helps if anyone wants hot and cold water to flow out from one faucet.


A rim is the upper edge of the tub. A rim is to provide a secure base for the bathtub. A rim also helps in preventing water from spilling out from the top of the bathtub if complete.


A flexible connector is a pipe that is used for connecting appliances to the water supply. It is usually made from braided steel and is used for any connector problems in plumbing. It comes in various sizes and bolt styles, allowing for easy adjustment into just any home.


The overflow pipe catches all the excess water build-up and directs it to drain through a separate pipe. Trap: It allows the water to be trapped, so harmful substances and gases cannot pass through from outside into the room. A trap also referred to as an 'S-Bend,' is a specific type of piping designed in the shape of a sideways 'S.'

Shut-off valve: It helps control water flow, and the main shut-off valve controls the water flow of the entire house. The waste outlet uses gravity to pull waste down to the sewer line, providing a clear channel for waste to be disposed of from the bathtub. A P-trap usually connects to the waste outlet.


Retaining nuts are nothing but locking nuts used to fasten fixtures to the wall. Recall that the faucet is a device that controls the flow of water from a pipe. Usually, a combined faucet provides hot and cold water in the required quantity for bathing.


The general residential fixtures used daily are;

  • Washbasin,

  • Bathtub,

  • Water closet, and

  • Shower

Washbasins are designed in different sizes and different shapes to match the interior of bathrooms. Washbasin includes many components like faucet, basin, drain, P-Trap, and many more. A bathtub is a part of the plumbing fixtures designed to store water for bathing purpose and consist of many parts. Each component has its importance and helps in providing control on water flow.


 

Residential Fixtures - Part 2


In this module, we will learn about residential fixtures and their components. Skip to quiz!


Water Closet


A water closet is a toilet bowl fitted with a mechanism for flushing with a flushing tank. It is installed in an enclosed room or compartment known as toilet. A water closet is used to receive human excrement and to discharge it through a waste pipe.


In the United States, water closets are even referred as toilet. A water closet would be installed in a bathroom even if no bathtub or shower is installed in that room. A water closet uses water as a conveying medium. Let us have a closer look at the parts of a water closet.


Some of the different components of water closet are:


  • Handle or flush rod

  • Lift chain

  • Flapper valve

  • Overflow tube

  • Shut-off valve

  • Float cup (Float ball)

  • Water Supply Valve (Ballcock)

  • Refill Tube

  • Toilet Bowl

  • Wax Seal (Wax Ring)

  • Flapper (Tank Ball)

  • Supply Tube,


The handle or flush rod is a part that initiates the flush. It is attached to a horizontal rod that connects to a chain or wire. Lift Chain: Lift rod is connected to a chain that descends vertically to the bottom of the tank. it is connected by which the flush valve at the bottom of the tank is opened to let the water flush down into the toilet bowl. Flapper (Tank Ball): The lift chain operates a rubber flapper that rests against the flush valve opening.


The flapper is operated when the toilet handle and lift chain lift it off the flush valve to allow the stored water in the tank to rush down into the bowl. A flush valve is the plastic or metal part sitting at the bottom of the tank, forming the opening through which water drops out of the tank and into the toilet bowl when a flush is initiated.


The flush valve is connected to the vertical overflow pipe as part of one-piece construction. The overflow tube is attached to the flush valve assembly. The overflow tube offers a safety measure to prevent water in the tank from overflowing if the water supply valve fail to shut off.


Shut-off valve: It is placed outside the toilet on the water supply pipe that brings cold water to the toilet. Water Supply Valve (Ballcock): It is placed behind the tank. The water supply valve, also known as the ballcock, is a vertical assembly.


Supply Tube: Running from the Shut-off valve to the water supply tailpiece on the bottom of the toilet tank is a vinyl, plastic, or steel mesh supply tube. Float Cup (Float Ball): All flush tanks have a floating device that serves to sense the water level in the tank and shut off the water supply when the proper level is reached.


Refill Tube: its purpose is to send a small trickle of water down into the toilet bowl during the refill cycle. Toilet Bowl: The internal trap holds standing water and prevents sewer gases from rising into the home. Wax Seal (Wax Ring): The wax seal creates a water-tight and air-tight seal between the toilet and sewer line.


Shower


A shower is a plumbing fixture used for bathing purposes. It consists of a pipe that ends in a flat cover with many holes so that water comes out in a spray form. A series of devices are connected to provide control and required amount of water flow.

The different components of a shower are:


  • Slide Bar

  • Slide Bar Bracket

  • Hand Shower

  • Rain Shower

  • Two-Sided Shower Enclosure

  • Shower Door Handle

  • Water Heater

  • Water Supply Pipe

  • Shut-off Valve

  • Waste Outlet Pipe

  • Shower Trap

  • Drain

  • Shower Hose

Slide Bar: Makes the shower adjustable at the desired height. Slide bar brackets are used to keep the slide bar in a required position.


Rain Shower: A shower that mimics the experience of bathing in the rain by spraying the water. Hand Shower: It is connected by a flexible hose and installed into a wall-mounted bracket. Shower Hose: The hose connects the hand shower from the shower outlet and extends to provide more control over water usage.


Shower Door Handle: The handle is used to open or close the bathroom shower. Water Heater: It is an appliance that heats and stores water. There were other types of water heater such as geyser, solar water heater, electric heater, and gas heaters.


Water Supply Pipe: The pipe is used to supply clean fresh water from the water tank. Shut-off Valve: The shut-off valve is used to regulate the flow of water through the pipe. Waste Outlet Pipe: This pipe is used to transport and remove sewage and greywater from the house or bathroom.


Drain: The plumbing fixture found on the bathroom floor carries away liquid waste. Drain Pipe: A large long pipe that transports the used and greywater from the house. Shower Trap: It is used to ensure the bathroom shower is drain-free.


A water closet is a toilet bowl fitted with a mechanism for flushing with a flushing tank. A shower is a plumbing fixture used for bathing purposes. These plumbing fixtures consist of many types of valves and fittings that are required to control the flow of water.



 

Question #1: A plumbing fixture is a device that is connected to a plumbing system to ____ and _____ water. (Select all that apply)


  1. Deliver

  2. Regulate

  3. Drain

  4. Stop

Scroll down for the answer...

















Answer: deliver and drain

A plumbing fixture is a device that is connected to a plumbing system to deliver and drain water.


Question #2: Which device enables us to use water in a controlled way?

  1. Valves

  2. Connections

  3. Fixtures

  4. Drain

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Answer: Fixtures

We can’t imagine using water directly from the pipes without any plumbing fixtures available.


Question #3: The general residential plumbing fixtures used daily are: (Select all that apply)

  1. Television

  2. Bathtub

  3. Oven

  4. Water closet

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Answer: Bathtub and Water closet

The general residential plumbing fixtures used daily are:

  • Washbasin,

  • Bathtub,

  • Water closet, and

  • Shower.


Question #4: A washbasin is used for washing faces and cleaning hands and is also known as _____.


  1. Table

  2. Door

  3. Sink

  4. Heater

Scroll down for the answer...


















Answer: Sink

A washbasin is used for washing faces and cleaning hands. It is also known as a sink.


Question #5: A device that controls the flow of water from a pipe is known as

  1. Faucet

  2. Pipe

  3. Valve

  4. Handle


Scroll down for the answer...
















Answer: Faucet

A faucet is a device that controls the flow of water from a pipe. A faucet includes a spout, controls, gaskets, flanges, aerators, washers, and screws.


Question #6: The section of piping assembly that connects to the drain is

  1. Shut-off valve

  2. Gasket

  3. Tailpiece

  4. Drain piece

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Answer: Tailpiece

The tailpiece is a section of piping assembly that connects to the drain.


Question #7: A part of the plumbing fixtures designed to store water for bathing is known as

  1. Washbasin

  2. Jug

  3. Sink

  4. Bathtub

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Answer: Bathtub

The bathtub is a part of the plumbing fixtures designed to store water for bathing purposes.


Question #8: Some of the parts of a bathtub are: (Select all that apply)

  1. Floor

  2. Tub

  3. Valves

  4. Hanger

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Answer: Tub and Valves


Some of the parts of a bathtub are:

  • Tub

  • Planar Cross

  • Rim

  • Drain

  • Shut-off Valves

  • Diverter Pipe


Question #9: A _____ pipe is plumbing equipment used to divert water flow to a single area.

  1. Regulator

  2. Connector

  3. Diverter

  4. Water supply

Scroll down for the answer...
















Answer: diverter pipe

A diverter pipe is plumbing equipment used to divert water flow to a single area.


Question #10: A plumbing fixture used for bathing purpose is known as

  1. Manhole

  2. Tap

  3. Drain

  4. Waste outlet

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Answer: Waste outlet

The waste outlet uses gravity to pull waste down to the sewer line, providing a clear channel for waste to be disposed of from the bathtub.


Question #11: Which device consist of a toilet bowl fitted with a mechanism for flushing with a flushing tank?

  1. Shower

  2. Pipe

  3. Tank

  4. Water closet

Scroll down for the answer...
















Answer: water closet

The water closet is a toilet bowl fitted with a mechanism for flushing with a flushing tank


Question #12: Which part of the water closet is used to initiate the flush?

  1. Handle

  2. Lift chain

  3. Flapper

  4. Float ball

Scroll down for the answer...
















Answer: Handle

The handle or flush rod of the water closet is the part that initiates the flush.


Question #13: The flapper is operated when the toilet handle and _____ lift it off the flush valve to allow the stored water in the tank to rush down into the bowl.

  1. Flush valve

  2. Lift chain

  3. Overflow pipe

  4. Bowl

Scroll down for the answer...
















Answer: Lift chain

The flapper is operated when the toilet handle and lift chain lift it off the flush valve to allow the stored water in the tank to rush down into the bowl.


Question #14: A device that controls the flow of water from a pipe is known as

  1. Faucet

  2. Pipe

  3. Valve

  4. Handle

Scroll down for the answer...
















Answer: Faucet

A faucet is a device that controls the flow of water from a pipe. A faucet includes a spout, controls, gaskets, flanges, aerators, washers, and screws.



Question #15: A plumbing fixture used for bathing purpose is known as

  1. Sink

  2. Tap

  3. Shower

  4. Water heater

Scroll down for the answer...
















Answer: Shower

A shower is a plumbing fixture used for bathing purpose.


Question #16: The ________ is connected by a flexible hose and installed into a wall-mounted bracket.

  1. Diverter

  2. Hand shower

  3. Valve

  4. Supply valve

Scroll down for the answer...
















Answer: Hand shower

The hand shower is connected by a flexible hose and installed into a wall-mounted bracket.


Question #17: The _______ is used to supply clean fresh water from the water tank.

  1. Supply pipe

  2. Pipe

  3. Control

  4. Waste pip

Scroll down for the answer...
















Answer: Supply pipe

The supply pipe is used to supply clean fresh water from the water tank.



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